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2002-12-16 21:48:00    评分
全球著名的《Discovery》电视频道评出全球最著名的16位黑客,名单如下: Richard Stallman Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson John Draper Mark Abene Robert Morris Kevin Mitnick Kevin Poulsen Johan Helsingius Vladimir Levin Steve Wozniak Tsutomu Shimomura Linus Torvalds Eric Steven Raymond Ian Murphy John Perry Barlow 每一位黑客的圈内头衔(Handle)、主要成就(Claim to fame)、第一次接触计算机(First encountered a computer)、自己独特的工具(Unusual tools)、鲜为人知的事实(Little-known fact)、目前状况(Current status)等具体情况分别介绍如下(英文,如有爱好者有兴趣愿意全部翻译成中文,则不胜感谢)。随后还详细附录了黑客守则、黑客简介、黑客发展简史、著名黑客的老窝(个人网站)等中英文重要资料。 Richard Stallman Handle: None (nothing to hide!) Claim to fame: A hacker of the old school, Stallman walked in off the street and got a job at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971. He was an undergraduate at Harvard at the time. Disturbed that software was viewed as private property, Stallman later founded the Free Software Foundation. First encountered a computer: In 1969, at the IBM New York Scientific Center. He was 16 years old. Unusual tools: In the 1980s Stallman left MIT’s payroll but continued to work from an office at MIT. Here he created a new operating system called GNU — short for GNU’s Not Unix. Little-known fact: Recipient of a $240,000 MacArthur Foundation genius grant. Current status: Richard Stallman has just published his latest book, Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman, available through GNU Press. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson Handles: dmr and Ken Claim to fame: The driving creative force behind Bell Labs’ legendary computer science operating group, Ritchie and Thompson created UNIX in 1969. An elegant, open operating system for minicomputers, UNIX helped users with general computing, word processing and networking, and soon became a standard language. Unusual tools: Plan 9, the next-generation operating system created as the natural descendant of UNIX by Thompson and Bell Labs colleague Rob Pike. Little-known fact: Although Ritchie is the author of the popular C programming language, his favorite language is Alef. Thompson, an amateur pilot, once traveled to Moscow to fly a MiG-29. Current status: Dennis Ritchie is currently the head of Lucent Technology’s System Software Research Department, while Ken Thompson has retired from both Bell Labs and the hacker spotlight. John Draper Handle: Cap’n Crunch Claim to fame: Figured out how to make free phone calls using a plastic prize whistle he found in a cereal box. Cap’n Crunch introduced generations of hackers to the glorious concept of phone "phreaking." First encountered a computer: As a teenager, trying to convince pay phones to return his coin and put through his calls. Unusual tools: The toy whistle from boxes of Cap’n Crunch cereal. The whistle reproduced the 2600 hertz tone necessary to authorize a call. Used in conjunction with a bluebox, it allowed users to make free phone calls. (Oscar Meyer weiner whistles also briefly gained a following among phone phreakers.) Little-known fact: Honorably discharged from the U.S. Air Force in 1968 after a stint in Vietnam. Current status: John Draper has set up his own security firm. He also recently developed Crunchbox, a firewall system that halts the spread of computer viruses. Mark Abene Handle: Phiber Optik Claim to fame: As a founding member of the Masters of Deception, Phiber Optik inspired thousands of teenagers around the country to "study" the internal workings of our nation’s phone system. A federal judge attempted to "send a message" to other hackers by sentencing Phiber to a year in federal prison, but the message got garbled: Hundreds of well-wishers attended a welcome-home party in Abene’s honor at an elite Manhattan Club. Soon after, New York magazine dubbed him one of the city’s 100 smartest people. First encountered a computer: Hanging out in the electronics department of the A&S department store in Queens, N.Y., where his mother worked. There he was introduced to the Apple II, the Timex Sinclair and the Commodore 64. The first computer he owned was a Radio Shack TRS-80 (Trash-80). Unusual tools: Experimented by dialing patterns on a phone receiver. Abene used the receiver so frequently that it had to be bandaged with black electrical tape to keep its guts from falling out. Little-known fact: Phiber Optik’s favorite food: mashed potatoes from Kentucky Fried Chicken. Not real mashed potatoes. Real ones have lumps in them. Current status: After doing time in a Pennsylvania prison, Mark Abene worked on penetration tests for an accounting firm, and formed the (now defunct) security company, Crossbar Security Robert Morris Handle: rtm Claim to fame: The son of the chief scientist at the National Computer Security Center — part of the National Security Agency (NSA) — this Cornell University graduate student introduced the word "hacker" into the vernacular when he accidentally unleashed an Internet worm in 1988. Thousands of computers were infected and subsequently crashed. First encountered a computer: At home. Morris’ father once brought home one of the original Enigma cryptographic machines from the NSA. It became a household conversation piece. Unusual tools: As a teenager Morris had an account on the Bell Labs’ computer network, where early hacking forays gave him super-user status. Little-known fact: When the Secret Service raided the home of Legion of Doom member Erik Bloodaxe in 1990, they found a copy of the source code for Morris’ Internet worm. Current status: Robert Morris is now an assistant professor at MIT, even though he released his worm virus from there in 1988 (thus disguising the fact that it was actually written at Cornell University). Kevin Mitnick Handle: Condor Claim to fame: The first hacker to have his face immortalized on an FBI "Most Wanted" poster. His status as a repeat offender — a teenage hacker who couldn’t grow up — earned Mitnick the nickname "The Lost Boy of Cyberspace." First encountered a computer: As a teenager. Mitnick couldn’t afford a computer, so he hung out in a Radio Shack store. He used the store’s demo models and modem to dial other computers. Unusual tools: During the three years he was on the lam, Mitnick used Internet Relay Chat (IRC) as a message drop and to communicate with his friends. Little-known fact: Sentenced to a year in a residential treatment center, Mitnick enrolled in a 12-step program to rid himself of what a judge agreed was his "computer addiction." Current status: Kevin Mitnick played himself in 2001’s hacker documentary Freedom Downtime. He also appeared on ABC’s Alias as a CIA computer whiz; to play the role, Mitnick was only allowed to use prop computers. Kevin Poulsen Handle: Dark Dante Claim to fame: In 1990 Poulsen took over all telephone lines going into Los Angeles area radio station KIIS-FM, assuring that he would be the 102nd caller. Poulsen won a Porsche 944 S2 for his efforts. First encountered a computer: When his parents bought him a TRS-80 (better known as a "Trash-80"). Unusual tools: A set of locksmith tools he used to break into phone company trailers. He was caught after a friend commemorated the break-ins with snapshots of Poulsen picking locks. Little-known fact: Admitted breaking into computers to get the names of undercover businesses operated by the FBI. Current status: Thanks to an episode of Unsolved Mysteries, Kevin Poulsen was arrested and spent three years in prison. He was then forbidden to touch a computer for another three years. Poulsen is now a self-proclaimed "reformed and penitent" journalist, and serves as editorial director for Security Focus. Johan Helsingius Handle: Julf Claim to fame: Operated the world’s most popular anonymous remailer, called penet.fi, until he closed up shop in September 1996. Helsingius’ troubles started when he was raided in 1995 by the Finnish police after the Church of Scientology complained that a penet.fi customer was posting the "church’s" secrets on the Net. Helsingius mothballed the remailer after a Finnish court ruled he must reveal the customer’s real e-mail address. Unusual tools: Ran the world’s busiest remailer on a run-of-the mill 486 with a 200-megabyte harddrive. Little-known fact: Never felt the need himself to post anonymously. Current status: Johan Helsingius lends his cyber knowledge to communication companies worldwide. Vladimir Levin Handle: Unknown Claim to fame: A graduate of St. Petersburg Tekhnologichesky University, this mathematician allegedly masterminded the Russian hacker gang that tricked Citibank’s computers into spitting out $10 million. Arrested by Interpol at Heathrow Airport in 1995. First encountered a computer: Unknown. Accused of using his office computer at AO Saturn, a St. Petersburg, Russia, computer firm, to break into Citibank. Unusual tools: Along with a computer, computer games and disks, Russian police confiscated a camcorder, music speakers and a TV set from Levin’s apartment. Little-known fact: Levin claimed that one of the lawyers assigned to defend him was actually an FBI agent. Current status: Vladimir Levin fought extradition to the United States for two years, but eventually lost his case. He was sentenced to three years in prison and ordered to pay Citibank $240,015 (his share from the heist). Citibank has since begun using the Dynamic Encryption Card, a security system so tight that no other financial institution in the world has it. Steve Wozniak Why Woz? Because he exemplifies the young hacker’s dream. Just out of college, the two Steves (Wozniak and Jobs) set to work designing computer games (for Atari) and building blue boxes (for themselves). Woz builds the Apple I. It has no keyboard, no case, no sound or graphics, but it is a thing of beauty nonetheless. The boys shake hands on April Fools’ Day 1976, and Apple Computer is born. The pride of the Homebrew Computer Club, Wozniak trades in his HP programmable calculator and Jobs sells his VW van to finance production from a Palo Alto garage. Current status: Steve Wozniak continues to do work for Apple. You can learn more about him on his website, http://www.woz.org Tsutomu Shimomura To state the obvious: Shimomura outhacked and outsmarted Kevin Mitnick, the nation’s most infamous cracker/phreaker, in early 1994. After colleagues at the San Diego Supercomputing Center informed Shimomura that someone had stolen hundreds of software programs and files from his work station, the computer security expert worked on a tip to track the thief through the WELL. A labyrinthine telco trail eventually led to an apartment complex in Raleigh, N.C., where FBI agents apprehended Mitnick. (They’ve had less luck tracking down Mitnick’s alleged Israeli accomplice.) But that’s not all: A consultant to the FBI, Air Force and National Security Agency, Shimomura is rumored to have engaged in darkside dabblings himself. As Jon Littman notes, "I’ve always wondered why he wrote that program to eavesdrop on cell phone calls. Somehow it doesn’t sound like an NSA contract." Current status: Tsutomu Shimomura co-wrote Takedown, an account of how he trapped hacker Kevin Mitnick. He still works for San Diego Supercomputer as a research fellow. Linus Torvalds A true hacker in the classic sense, Linus Torvalds was a computer science student at the University of Helsinki when he wrote the operating system Linux (a contraction of "Linus’ Minix") in 1991. The software has proven to be tremendously popular worldwide — and best of all it’s FREE! Torvalds modestly attributes much of Linux’s success to the Net and to Richard Stallman’s GNU: Both have facilitated development of his original kernel by fostering collaboration among software programmers and developers. Current status: Linus Torvalds — one of the most genuinely respected hackers in history — now works for Transmeta, a company that develops software-based microprocessors. He’s married with two daughters. Eric Steven Raymond Eric Steven Raymond is the granddaddy of today’s hackers, a man who revels in living the life in all its geeky glory. According to him, "The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved." Annoyed by the fact that most people misuse the term "hacker," he wrote The Hacker’s Dictionary and How to Be a Hacker. (Raymond says the basic difference is that "hackers build things, crackers break them.") Not only is he respected for his astounding skills as a programmer, but Raymond is also valued as a fierce defender of the Open Source Movement, which is based on the premise that programmers should be able to read and modify all software source codes. In this IT paradise, programmers would be able to improve software and fix any potentially lethal bugs. Steve Wozniak would be a god. Bill Gates would be the serpent. In addition to programming, Raymond is also a fan of libertarianism, neo-paganism and the right to bear arms. Ian Murphy The year was 1981. The Reagan administration was in its infancy. "Elvira" was setting the Billboard charts on fire. And a young hacker was about to become the first person ever arrested for a computer crime. Eighteen months earlier, Ian Murphy (a.k.a. "Captain Zap") along with three cohorts, hacked into AT&T’s computers and changed their internal clocks. People suddenly received late-night discounts in the afternoon, while others who waited until midnight to use the phone were greeted with hefty bills. For his part in the crime, Murphy was greeted with 1,000 hours of community service and 2 1/2 years probation (considerably less than what fellow hackers would receive today). He also became the inspiration for the movie Sneakers. Today Murphy, like other hackers, runs his own security company — IAM Secure Data Systems, Inc. For $5,000 a day plus expenses, Murphy has dressed up as a phone-company employee and cracked a bank’s security system, aided a murder investigation, and conducted studies in airline terrorism. But Murphy’s great love is still hacking into company security systems — with their permission — and helping them guard against potential break-ins. John Perry Barlow John Perry Barlow is a study in contrasts. The man with the WASP-ish name was actually born in Wyoming and educated in a one-room schoolhouse. He was a cattle rancher before he dropped out and became a songwriter for an up-and-coming band called the Grateful Dead. He applied the term "cyberspace" to today’s media, and co-founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit organization devoted to preserving freedom of speech on the Internet. Barlow is a tough guy to pin down. And that might make him one of the greatest hackers of all. Though Barlow’s Apple PowerBook is hidden beneath Grateful Dead stickers and dancing bears, he’s still quite grounded in the 21st century. This self-described "techno-hippie" now spends his days fighting the "evil conglomerate," which includes Microsoft, AOL and even the Motion Picture Association of America, while pushing his agenda to preserve freedom of expression in cyberspace. Barlow’s greatest hope is that "we will create a civilization in the mind of cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than your governments have created." In addition, he believes that "there is something inherently liberating about getting on the Internet. There has been demonstrated a cultural infection in Internet use that is more powerful than the infections that others bring to it. And I place a great deal of faith in what’s going to happen in society when more people are online and fewer people are watching television." 黑客守则 不恶意破坏任何的系统, 这样作只会给你带来麻烦.恶意破坏它人的软体将导致法律刑责, 如果你只是使用电脑, 那仅为非法使用!! 注意: 千万不要破坏别人的软体或资料 !!不修改任何的系统档, 如果你是为了要进入系统而修改它, 请在答到目的後将它改回原状.不要轻易的将你要 Hack 的站台告诉你不信任的朋友.不要在 bbs 上谈论你 Hack 的任何事情.在 Post 文章的时候不要使用真名.正在入侵的时候, 不要随意离开你的电脑.不要侵入或破坏政府机关的主机.不在电话中谈论你 Hack 的任何事情.将你的笔记放在安全的地方.想要成为 Hacker 就要真正的 Hacking, 读遍所有有关系统安全或系统漏洞的文件 (英文快点学好)!已侵入电脑中的帐号不得清除或修改.不得修改系统档案, 如果为了隐藏自己的侵入而作的修改则不在此限, 但仍须维持原来系统的安全性, 不得因得到系统的控制权而将门户大开 !!不将你已破解的帐号分享与你的朋友.   (严正声明:本文旨在讲述黑客常识,如有人利用其中信息攻击他人, 一切后果自负!) 黑客简介 黑客是计算机专业中的一群特殊的群体,随着目前新闻中计算机系统被攻击报道的越来越多,黑客就越发成为我们关注的焦点。关于黑客的描述有很多,我们选择如下几例,帮你对黑客有个初步的了解。    黑客(hacker)   技术上的行家或热衷于解决问题, 克服限制的人。在精神上, hacker 并不单指(限制于)这种软件 hacker 的文化。有人也把hacker的特质发挥在其它领域, 例如: 电子或者音乐方面。事实上你会发现, 在任何一种科学或艺术的最高境界, 你都可以发现 hacker 的特质。软件 hacker 们认为,那些类似的精神也都可以称为黑客。   黑客的态度   Hacker 们解决了问题并创造新东西, 他们相信自由并自愿的互相帮助。   黑客精神   1. 这世上充满著等著被解决的迷人问题。   2. 没有任何人必须一再的解决同一个问题。   3. 无聊而单调的工作是有害的。   4. 自由才好。   5. 态度并非不等效于能力。   解释:猜疑态度和尊敬各种能力。Hacker 们不会想浪费时间在虚华的人的身上, 他们尊敬的是能力 -- 特别是身为 hacker 的能力, 但对于其它方面的能力也是充满敬意。   一位 Hacker 所需的基本技能   1. 学习程序设计。   2. 取得一个免费的 UNIX , 并学习使用和维护。   3. 学习使用 World Wide Web 并学会写 HTML。   Hacker 文化的状况   1. 写免费的软件。   2. 帮忙 test 和 debug 免费的软件。   3. 公布有用的资讯。   4. 帮忙维持一些简单的工作。(解释:hacker 文化是由一群自愿者维持运作。有一些工作很无趣但却必须维持正常运作的, 如: 管理 mailing list, 维护 newsgroup, 维持大的软件供应站台, 推动RFC 和其它技术标准。)   5. 为 hacker 文化而努力。   电脑黑客守则   1. 不恶意破坏任何的系统, 这样作只会给你带来麻烦。恶意破坏它人的软体将导致法律刑责, 如果你只是使用电脑, 那仅为非法使用!! 注意: 千万不要破坏别人的软体或资料 !!   2. 不修改任何的系统档, 如果你是为了要进入系统而修改它, 请在答到目的後将它改回原状。   3. 不要轻易的将你要 Hack 的站台告诉你不信任的朋友。   4. 不要在 bbs 上谈论你 Hack 的任何事情。   5. 在 Post 文章的时候不要使用真名。   6. 正在入侵的时候, 不要随意离开你的电脑。   7. 不要侵入或破坏政府机关的主机。   8. 不在电话中谈论你 Hack 的任何事情。   9. 将你的笔记放在安全的地方。   10. 想要成为 Hacker 就要真正的 Hacking, 读遍所有有关系统安全或系统漏洞的文件 (英文快点学好)!   11. 已侵入电脑中的帐号不得清除或修改。   12. 不得修改系统档案, 如果为了隐藏自己的侵入而作的修改则不在此限, 但仍须维持原来系统的安全性, 不得因得到系统的控制权而将门户大开 !!   13. 不将你已破解的帐号分享与你的朋友。   黑客名称来源:   几十年前第一台 minicomputer 刚诞生, ARPAnet 实验也刚展开的时代。那时有一个由程序设计专家和网络名人所组成的, 具有分享特质的文化族群。这种文化的成员创造了`hacker’ 这个名词。这些 Hacker 建立了 Internet,创造出我们现在使用的 UNIX 操作系统, 他们也使 Usenet 运作起来, 并且让 WorldWide Web 动起来。   骇客(cracker)   hacker 和 cracker 之间最主要的不同是: hacker 们创造新东西,cracker 们破坏东西。 黑客发展简史 新时代的确立不仅是以文化和认知方式上的转型为其特征的,同时往往要造就一个或几个能够代表它自己的、独特的社会群体和阶层,而黑客显然就是信息时代最令人惊讶的产物之一。   从贝尔发明电话而将信息时代的巨幕逐渐拉开的时候算起,各色各样善于将个人的技术优势凌驾于社会规则之上的黑客组织和个人通过他们自己独特的方式已经将其封印深刻于时代的铭柱之上,他们像传说中的阿波罗一样,驾驭着技术的马车巡游在世界的每个角落。可以说,黑客早就完成了自我的涅 ,早以不是依靠盗打几个长途电话或是突破个把防火墙便能获得满足的快乐。实际上,大到国际政治、小到个人隐私,我们如今已经很难指出哪里还听不到黑客们的声音、哪里还见不到黑客的身影。   在下文中我们将一起回顾黑客逐渐成长的岁月,希望能够从中了解这些隐身在技术帷帐之后神秘难测的人。   1969以前:萌芽期   早在1878年,贝尔电话公司成立的消息已经迅速引来一群爱戏弄人的少年,他们用自制的交换机中断电话或者胡乱接驳线路。诚然,这帮纯粹为捣蛋而捣蛋的小子称不上什么严格意义上的黑客,但他们却实实在在的应当算作电脑黑客精神上的原型。   至19世纪60年代,黑客家谱中的第一代终于出现,他们对于新兴的电脑科技充满好奇。由于当时的电脑还是那些长达数英里、重达数百吨的大型主机,而技术人员需要劳师动众才能通过它们完成某项如今不值一哂的工作,为了尽量发挥它们的潜质,最棒的电脑精英们便编写出了一些简洁高效的工作捷径程序。这些捷径往往较原有的程序系统更完善,而这种行为便被称为Hack。   不过,如果要评选早期最具价值的的黑客行为,相信应当是1969年由贝尔实验室两位职员丹尼斯·里奇及肯·汤普森制作的UNIX操作系统,即使两位创造者采用的全然是黑客手法,但实际上毫无“黑”味儿,不仅如此,在某种程度上讲还大大推动了软件科学的发展。   1970-1979:成长期   19世纪70年代可以说是黑客的少年时期,随着技艺的日渐成熟,他们心中那些迷蒙而散乱的思想也逐步成型,昔日凭借本能行事的第一代黑客们开始了由蛹化蝶的进程。大约在1971年,越战老兵约翰·德雷珀发明了利用汽笛吹入电话听筒而成功打免费电话的奇招。接着,反文化领袖阿比·霍夫曼更明目张胆地出版了一本专门探讨如何入侵电话系统打免费长途的刊物,他极力宣扬个人在大型机构面前应当保有尊严,并鼓吹如果尊严被剥夺人们应当具有反击的权利,他的思想和言论所造就的影响力足足流传了二十多年。   黑客队伍在这个时期日渐壮大,一些后来在IT技术史中占有重要地位的人物开始崭露头角,其中包括苹果机创始人之一的沃兹尼亚克。越来越多的黑客们在共享着技术所带来的喜悦的时候,发现唯一美中不足的是欠缺互相交流心得的地方。因此,在1978年,来自芝加哥的兰迪·索萨及沃德·克里斯琴森便制作了第一个供黑客交流的网上公告版,此BBS至今仍在运行之中. The Golden Age (1980-1991) In 1981 IBM announced a new model — a stand-alone machine, fully loaded with a CPU, software, memory, utilities, storage. They called it the "personal computer." You could go anywhere and do anything with one of these hot rods. Soon kids abandoned their Chevys to explore the guts of a "Commie 64" or a "Trash-80." The 1983 movie War Games shone a flashlight onto the hidden face of hacking, and warned audiences nationwide that hackers could get into any computer system. Hackers gleaned a different message from the film. It implied that hacking could get you girls. Cute girls. The territory was changing. More settlers were moving into the online world. ARPANET was morphing into the Internet, and the popularity of bulletin-board systems exploded. In Milwaukee a group of hackers calling themselves the 414’s (their area code) broke into systems at institutions ranging from the Los Alamos Laboratories to Manhattan’s Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Then the cops put the arm on them. The Great Hacker War To pinpoint the start of the "Great Hacker War," you’d probably have to go back to 1984, when a guy calling himself Lex Luthor founded the Legion of Doom. Named after a Saturday morning cartoon, the LOD had the reputation of attracting the best of the best — until one of the gang’s brightest young acolytes, a kid named Phiber Optik, feuded with Legion of Doomer Erik Bloodaxe and got tossed out of the clubhouse. Phiber’s friends formed a rival group, the Masters of Deception. Starting in 1990, LOD and MOD engaged in almost two years of online warfare — jamming phone lines, monitoring calls, trespassing in each other’s private computers. Then the Feds cracked down. For Phiber and friends, that meant jail. It was the end of an era. Crackdown (1986-1994) With the government online, the fun ended. Just to show that they meant business, Congress passed a law in 1986 called the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Translation: A felony gets you five. Then along came Robert Morris with his Internet worm in 1988. Crashing 6,000 Net-linked computers earned Morris the distinction of being the first person convicted under the Act’s computer-crime provision. Translation: a $10,000 fine and too many hours of community service. Soon you needed a scorecard to keep up with the arrests. That same year Kevin Mitnick broke into the Digital Equipment Company’s computer network; he was nabbed and sentenced to a year in jail. Then Kevin #2 — Kevin Poulsen — was indicted on phone-tampering charges. Kevin #2 went on the lam and avoided the long arm of the law for 17 months. Operation Sundevil was the name the government gave to its ham-handed 1990 attempt to crack down on hackers across the country, including the Legion of Doom. It didn’t work. But the following year Crackdown Redux resulted in jail sentences for four members of the Masters of Deception. Phiber Optik spent a year in federal prison. Some people just couldn’t learn from their mistakes, though. In February 1995 Kevin Mitnick was arrested again. This time the FBI accused him of stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He sat in jail for more than a year before pleading guilty in April 1996 to illegal use of stolen cellular telephone numbers. Zero Tolerance (1994-1998) Seeing Mitnick being led off in chains on national TV soured the public’s romance with online outlaws. Net users were terrified of hackers using tools like "password sniffers" to ferret out private information, or "spoofing," which tricked a machine into giving a hacker access. Call it the end of anarchy, the death of the frontier. Hackers were no longer considered romantic antiheroes, kooky eccentrics who just wanted to learn things. A burgeoning online economy with the promise of conducting the world’s business over the Net needed protection. Suddenly hackers were crooks. In the summer of 1994 a gang masterminded by a Russian hacker broke into Citibank’s computers and made unauthorized transfers totaling more than $10 million from customers’ accounts. Citibank recovered all but about $400,000, but the scare sealed the deal. The hackers’ arrests created a fraud vacuum out there in cyberspace. Hack 2K (1999+) As the millenium approached, general cyber-hysteria over the infamous Y2K bug was further inflamed by several serious hacker attacks. Well-documented by the media, these invasions were experienced directly (perhaps for the first time) by the growing masses of casual web surfers. In the second week of February 2000 some of the most popular Internet sites (CNN, Yahoo, E-Bay and Datek) were subject to "denial of service" attacks. Their networks clogged with false requests sent by multiple computers under the control of a single hacker, these commercial sites crashed and lost untold millions in sales. In May, a new virus appeared that spread rapidly around the globe. The "I Love You" virus infected image and sound files and spread quickly by causing copies of itself to be sent to all individuals in an address book. Recent attacks on seemingly "secure" sites such as The White House, FBI and Microsoft.com have proven that despite massive public and private investment in cyber defense technology and methodology, hackers continue to pose a serious threat to the "information infrastructure." 著名黑客的老窝(个人网站): Dennis Ritchie John Draper, a.k.a. "Cap’n Crunch" "The Prisoner: Phiber Optik Goes Directly to Jail" Kevin Mitnick 2600: The Hacker Quarterly Steve Wozniak "Secrets of the Little Blue Box," Esquire, October 1971 Tsutomu Shimomura Linus Torvalds 来源:Discovery电视频道、FM365。

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2005-03-04 06:34:00    评分

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