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[经验] STM32控制BLDC-如何让电机转起来 有原理图有程序

助工
2019-09-20 14:52:09    评分
无刷直流电机比较流行,很多电机内部加入霍尔元件,通过霍尔元件可以知道电机转子的位置,根据这个位置给电机相线供电,这样电机就转起来了。框图如下所示




霍尔元件输出与相线输入电压的关系可以让BLDC电机厂家提供,一般都提供这个对应关系表,如下图所示



有了上面这些足可以让我们设计电路编写程序让电机转起来!



有上面的框图可以看出,3相电机的驱动需要六个mos管,一般用的是NMOS,大功率的NMOS比较便宜。大功率MOS管有较大的结电容,控制电压也高些,无法用单片机直接驱动,所以需要驱动电路。驱动芯片组成的驱动电路比较简单,常见的有IR2110S,我这里用IR2110S设计了MOS驱动电路,如下图所示,其中C24和D5是自举电路,为了控制Q3抬高电压。



3片IR2110S驱动6个NMOS,如下图



霍尔元件供电是5V,他的输出一般也是5V,可以分压后给单片机用。



单片机用流行STM32,他有高级定时器T1,T8,可以输出3对互补的PWM波,还有刹车信号输入,这些特性对于电机的可控制非常合适。电路如下图所示



BLDC电机控制用到单片机定时器及IO中断,初始化部分如下

void tiM_Config(void)
{
  GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure;
        TIM_TimeBaseInitTypeDef        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct;
        TIM_OCInitTypeDef  TIM_OCInitStructure;
        TIM_BDTRInitTypeDef TIM_BDTRInitStructure;
        EXTI_InitTypeDef EXTI_InitStructure;//
        NVIC_InitTypeDef NVIC_InitStructure;
        TIM_ICInitTypeDef TIM_ICInitStructure;
        // ¿ªÆô¶¨Ê±Æ÷ʱÖÓ,¼´ÄÚ²¿Ê±ÖÓCK_INT=72M
        RCC_APB2PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOA | RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB | RCC_APB2Periph_TIM1, ENABLE);
        RCC_APB2PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB2Periph_AFIO,ENABLE);
        
   // Êä³ö±È½ÏͨµÀ1 GPIO ³õʼ»¯
        GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin =  GPIO_Pin_8 | GPIO_Pin_9 | GPIO_Pin_10 ;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_AF_PP;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;
  GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStructure);
        
        GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin =  GPIO_Pin_13 | GPIO_Pin_14 | GPIO_Pin_15;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_AF_PP;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;
  GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStructure);
        //»ô¶ûÊäÈë
        GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin =  GPIO_Pin_6 | GPIO_Pin_7 ;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_IPU;
  GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStructure);
        GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin =  GPIO_Pin_0 ;
  GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_IPU;
  GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStructure);
        
        GPIO_EXTILineConfig(GPIO_PortSourceGPIOB,GPIO_PinSource0);
        
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Line=EXTI_Line0; 
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Mode = EXTI_Mode_Interrupt;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Trigger = EXTI_Trigger_Rising_Falling;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_LineCmd = ENABLE;
        EXTI_Init(&EXTI_InitStructure);
        
        NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannel = EXTI0_IRQn;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelPreemptionPriority = 0x01;  
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelSubPriority = 0x01;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelCmd = ENABLE; 
  NVIC_Init(&NVIC_InitStructure);
        
        GPIO_EXTILineConfig(GPIO_PortSourceGPIOA,GPIO_PinSource6);
        
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Line= EXTI_Line6; 
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Mode = EXTI_Mode_Interrupt;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Trigger = EXTI_Trigger_Rising_Falling;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_LineCmd = ENABLE;
        EXTI_Init(&EXTI_InitStructure);
        
        NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannel = EXTI9_5_IRQn;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelPreemptionPriority = 0x01;  
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelSubPriority = 0x02;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelCmd = ENABLE; 
  NVIC_Init(&NVIC_InitStructure); 
        
        GPIO_EXTILineConfig(GPIO_PortSourceGPIOA,GPIO_PinSource7);
        
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Line= EXTI_Line7; 
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Mode = EXTI_Mode_Interrupt;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Trigger = EXTI_Trigger_Rising_Falling;
        EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_LineCmd = ENABLE;
        EXTI_Init(&EXTI_InitStructure);
        
        NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannel = EXTI9_5_IRQn;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelPreemptionPriority = 0x01;  
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelSubPriority = 0x03;
  NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelCmd = ENABLE; 
  NVIC_Init(&NVIC_InitStructure); 
        
        TIM_DeInit(TIM1);        //½«ÍâÉèTIM1¼Ä´æÆ÷ÖØÉèΪȱʡֵ  
        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct.TIM_ClockDivision = TIM_CKD_DIV1 ;    
        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct.TIM_CounterMode = TIM_CounterMode_Up ;  
        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct.TIM_Period = 1000 ;       
        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct.TIM_Prescaler = 3 ;     
        TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct.TIM_RepetitionCounter = 0;
        TIM_TimeBaseInit(TIM1, &TIM_TimeBaseInitStruct ) ;       
        
        /* ¶¨Ê±Æ÷Êä³öͨµÀ1ģʽÅäÖà */

  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM1;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable;         
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputNState = TIM_OutputNState_Enable; 
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_Pulse = 1000;

  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCNPolarity= TIM_OCNPolarity_High;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCIdleState = TIM_OCIdleState_Set;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCNIdleState = TIM_OCNIdleState_Set;

  TIM_OC1Init(TIM1, &TIM_OCInitStructure);
  TIM_OC2Init(TIM1, &TIM_OCInitStructure);
  TIM_OC3Init(TIM1, &TIM_OCInitStructure);

  /* Automatic Output enable, Break, dead time and lock configuration*/
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_OSSRState = TIM_OSSRState_Enable;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_OSSIState = TIM_OSSIState_Enable;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_LOCKLevel = TIM_LOCKLevel_OFF;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_DeadTime = 1;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_Break = TIM_Break_Disable;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_BreakPolarity = TIM_BreakPolarity_High;
  TIM_BDTRInitStructure.TIM_AutomaticOutput = TIM_AutomaticOutput_Enable;
  TIM_BDTRConfig(TIM1, &TIM_BDTRInitStructure);

  TIM_OC1PreloadConfig(TIM1,TIM_OCPreload_Enable);
  TIM_OC2PreloadConfig(TIM1,TIM_OCPreload_Enable);
  TIM_OC3PreloadConfig(TIM1,TIM_OCPreload_Enable);
        
  TIM_ARRPreloadConfig(TIM1, ENABLE);
  TIM_Cmd(TIM1, ENABLE);
  TIM_CtrlPWMOutputs(TIM1, ENABLE); 

  TIM_CCxCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_1,TIM_CCx_Enable);
  TIM_CCxNCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_1,TIM_CCxN_Enable);
  TIM_CCxCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_2,TIM_CCx_Enable);
  TIM_CCxNCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_2,TIM_CCxN_Enable);
  TIM_CCxCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_3,TIM_CCx_Enable);
  TIM_CCxNCmd(TIM1,TIM_Channel_3,TIM_CCxN_Enable);
}
让电机转起来需要知道电机转子的位置,根据霍尔相位对应表驱动电机相线,程序里用中断获取霍尔电平的变化。

void EXTI0_IRQHandler(void) 

        int i,j;
        IF(EXTI_GetITStatus(EXTI_Line0)!=RESET)
        {
                EXTI_ClearITPendingBit(EXTI_Line0);


                step=((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_6)>>6)+((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_7)>>6)+((GPIOB->IDR & GPIO_Pin_0)<<2);
                if(start==1)
                {
                        TIM1->CCER=PHASE_CHANGE[step];
                        int_count1++;
                }
        }
}

void EXTI9_5_IRQHandler(void) 

        int i,j;
        if(EXTI_GetITStatus(EXTI_Line6)!=RESET)
        {
                EXTI_ClearITPendingBit(EXTI_Line6);

                step=((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_6)>>6)+((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_7)>>6)+((GPIOB->IDR & GPIO_Pin_0)<<2);
                if(start==1)
                {
                        TIM1->CCER=PHASE_CHANGE[step];
                        int_count2++;
                }

        }
        if(EXTI_GetITStatus(EXTI_Line7)!=RESET)
        {
                EXTI_ClearITPendingBit(EXTI_Line7);

                step=((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_6)>>6)+((GPIOA->IDR & GPIO_Pin_7)>>6)+((GPIOB->IDR & GPIO_Pin_0)<<2);
                if(start==1)
                {
                        TIM1->CCER=PHASE_CHANGE[step];
                        int_count3++;
                }
        }
}


检测到变化后改变定时器输出,从而使电机相线得到驱动,我在程序里做好了数组,把得到了位置通过数组给定时器CCER寄存器,这样电机就转起来了

int PHASE_CHANGE[7]={0x0000,0x0104,0x0041,0x0140,0x0410,0x0014,0x0401};
这是霍尔输出与PWM输出波形的截图



这是定时器3对PWM的输出截图



这是电机和电路板


这是程序
 201909141747 BLDC.rar (4.26 MB, 下载次数: 0)
————————————————
更多精彩内容关注我的博客 
https://blog.csdn.net/gd1984812/article/details/100834511





关键词: STM32     BLDC-     电机    

工程师
2019-09-20 17:41:29    评分
2楼

感谢分享


助工
2019-09-20 18:55:53    评分
3楼

不错  谢谢楼主分享


助工
2019-10-08 21:07:27    评分
4楼

很酷


助工
2019-10-12 15:05:14    评分
5楼

厉害  很不错的资料


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