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The Alpha AXP Processor

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Alpha AXP 体系结构是一个为了速度而设计的 64 位的加载 / 存储( load/store ) RISC 体系结构。所有的寄存器都是 64 位长的: 32 个整数寄存器和 32 个浮点寄存器。第 31 个整数寄存器和第 31 个浮点寄存器用于 null 操作:读取它们得到 0 ,写向它们没有任何结果。所有的指令和内存操作(不管是读或写)都是 32 位。只要具体的实现遵循这种体系结构,允许不同的实现方式。

没有直接在内存中操作数值的指令:所有的数据操作都是在寄存器之间进行。所以,如果你希望增加内存中一个计数器,你必须首先把它读到一个积存其中,修改之后再写回去。只有通过一个指令写向一个寄存器或内存位置,而另一个读取这个寄存器或内存位置,指令之间才能过相互作用。 Alpha AXP 的一个有趣的特点是它有可以产生标志位的指令,比如测试两个整数是否相等,这个结构不是存放到处理器的一个状态寄存器,而是存放到第三个寄存器。初看上去比较奇怪,但是不依赖于状态寄存器意味着可以更容易地让这个 CPU 每一个循环执行多个指令。执行过程中使用无关的寄存器的指令不需要互相等待,如果只有一个状态寄存器则必须等待。没有对于内存的直接操作以及数目众多的寄存器对于同时多条指令也有帮助。

 

Alpha AXP 体系结构使用一系列子例程,叫做体系结构的授权库代码( privileged architecture library code PALcode )。 PALcode 和操作系统、 Alpha AXP 体系的 CPU 具体实现和系统硬件相关。这些子例程向操作系统提供上下文切换、中断、异常和内存管理的基本支持。这些子例程可以被硬件调用或通过 CALL_PAL 指令调用。 PALcode 用标准的 Alpha AXP 汇编程序编写,带有一些特殊扩展的实现,用于提供直接访问低级硬件的功能,例如内部处理器的寄存器。 PALcode 在 PAL 模式运行,这是一个特权的模式,会停止一些系统事件的发上,并允许 PALcode 完全控制系统的物理硬件。

Appendix C (附录 C )

Useful Web and FTP Sites (有用的 web 和 ftp 站点)

http://www.azstarnet.com/~axplinux This is David Mosberger-Tang's Alpha

AXP Linux web site and it is the place to go for all of the Alpha AXP HOW-

TOs. It also has a large number of pointers to Linux and Alpha AXP specific

information such as CPU data sheets.

http://www.redhat.com/ Red Hat's web site. This has a lot of useful pointers.

ftp://sunsite.unc.edu This is the major site for a lot of free software. The Linux

specfic software is held in pub/Linux.

http://www.intel.com Intel's web site and a good place to look for Intel chip

information.

http://www.ssc.com/lj/index.html The Linux Journal is a very good Linux

magazine and well worth the yearly subscription for its excellent articles.

http://www.blackdown.org/java-linux.html This is the primary site for infor-

mation on Java on Linux.

ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/ ~ftp/pub/linux MIT's Linux ftp site.

ftp://ftp.cs.helsinki.fi/pub/Software/Linux/Kernel Linus's kernel sources.

http://www.linux.org.uk The UK Linux User Group.

http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/linux.html Home page for the Linux Documen-

tation Project,

http://www.digital.com Digital Equipment Corporation's main web page.

http://altavista.digital.com DIGITAL's Altavista search engine. A very good

place to search for information within the web and news groups.

http://www.linuxhq.com The Linux HQ web site holds up to date offical and

unoffical patches as well as advice and web pointers that help you get the best

set of kernel sources possible for your system.

http://www.amd.com The AMD web site.

http://www.cyrix.com Cyrix's web site.

Appendix D( 附录 D)

The GNU General Public

License

Printed below is the GNU General Public License (the GPL or copyleft), under

which Linux is licensed. It is reproduced here to clear up some of the confusion

about Linux's copyright status|Linux is not shareware, and it is not in the public

domain. The bulk of the Linux kernel is copyright c 1993 by Linus Torvalds, and

other software and parts of the kernel are copyrighted by their authors. Thus, Linux

is copyrighted, however, you may redistribute it under the terms of the GPL printed

below.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991

Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge,

MA 02139, USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of

this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

D.1 Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and

change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee

your freedom to share and change free software{to make sure the software is free

for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software

Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using

it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library

General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General

Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute

copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive

source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use

pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny

you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate

to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you

modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee,

you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that

they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms

so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you

this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the

software.

Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone

understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified

by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what they have

is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not re ect on the

original authors' reputations.

Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to

avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent

licenses, in e
ect making the program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it

clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

D.2 Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distribu-

tion, and Modification 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice

placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of

this General Public License. The \Program", below, refers to any such program

or work, and a \work based on the Program" means either the Program or

any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing

the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or

translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without

limitation in the term \modification".) Each licensee is addressed as \you".

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered

by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is

not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents

constitute a work based on the Program (independent ofhaving been made by

running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program

does.

1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code

as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appro-

priately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer

of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the

absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy

of this License along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may

at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it,

thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such

modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you

also meet all of these conditions:

a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that

you changed the files and the date of any change.

b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or

in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to

be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of

this License.

c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run,

you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the

most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an

appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or

else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute

the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a

copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but

does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the

Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable

sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably

considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License,

and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as

separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole

which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be

on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to

the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights

to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to

control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with

the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage

or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this

License.

3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section

2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above

provided that you also do one of the following:

a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source

code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above

on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any

third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing

source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the correspond-

ing source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2

above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

c. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to dis-

tribute corresponding source code. (This alternative isallowed only for

noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object

code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making

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the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface defi-

nition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the

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not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary

form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating

system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies

the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy

from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code

from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third

parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as

expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,

sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate

your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or

rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so

long as such parties remain in full compliance.

5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. How-

ever, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program

or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law ifyou do not ac-

cept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any

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do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying

the Program or works based on it.

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the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy,

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may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights

granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third

parties to this License.

7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement

or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed

on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the

conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this

License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations

under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence

you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license

would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who

receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could

satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution

of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any par-

ticular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the

section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or

other property right claims or to contest validity ofany such claims; this section

has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution

system, which isimplemented by public license practices. Many people have

made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through

that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the

author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through

any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a

consequence of the rest of this License.

8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries

either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder

who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical

distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permit-

ted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License

incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the

General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in

spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems

or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies

a version number of this License which applies to it and \any later version", you

have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or

of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program

does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version

ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose

distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission.

For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the

Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision

will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of

our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY

11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE

IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMIT-

TED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED

IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES

PROVIDE THE PROGRAM \AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY

KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIM-

ITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND

FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO

THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH

YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME

THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORREC-

TION.

12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAWOR AGREED

TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER

PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM

AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, IN-

CLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUEN-

TIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE

THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA

OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED

BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO

OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER

OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF

SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

D.3 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your

New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to

the public, the best way toachieve this is to make itfree software which everyone

can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them

to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty;

and each file should have at least the \copyright" line and a pointer to where the full

notice is found.

hone line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.i

Copyright c 19yy hname of authori

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it

under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the

Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your

option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITH-

OUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MER-

CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See

the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along

with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,

675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts

in an interactive mode:

Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author Gnomovision

comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This

is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain

conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate

parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called

something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or

menu items{whatever suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if

any, to sign a \copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample;

alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program

`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

hsignature of Ty Cooni, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into pro-

prietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more

useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you

want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.

 

 

Glossary (名词表)

Argument Functions and routines are passed arguments to process.

ARP Address Resolution Protocol. Used to translate IP addresses into physical

hardware addresses.

Ascii American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Each letter of the

alphabet is represented by an 8 bit code. Ascii is most often used to store

written characters.

Bit A single bit of data that represents either 1 or 0 (on or off).

Bottom Half Handler Handlers for work queued within the kernel.

Byte 8 bits of data,

C A high level programming language. Most of the Linux kernel is written in C.

CPU Central Processing Unit. The main engine of the computer, see also micro-

processor and processor.

Data Structure This is a set of data in memory comprised of fields,

Device Driver The software controlling a particular device, for example the NCR

810 device driver controls the NCR 810 SCSI device.

DMA Direct Memory Access.

ELF Executable and Linkable Format. This object file format designed by the Unix

System Laboratories is now firmly established as the most commonly used

format in Linux.

EIDE Extended IDE.

Executable image A structured file containing machine instructions and data.

This file can be loaded into a process's virtual memory and executed. See

also program.

Function A piece of software that performs an action. For example, returning the

bigger of two numbers.

IDE Integrated Disk Electronics.

Image See executable image.

IP Internet Protocol.

IPC Interprocess Communiction.

Interface A standard way of calling routines and passing data structures. For

example, the interface between two layers of code might be expressed in terms

of routines that pass and return a particular data structure. Linux's VFS is a

good example of an interface.

IRQ Interrupt Request Queue.

ISA Industry Standard Architecture. This is a standard, although now rather dated,

data bus interface for system components such as oppy disk drivers.

Kernel Module A dynamically loaded kernel function such as a filesystem or a

device driver.

Kilobyte A thousand bytes of data, often written as Kbyte,

Megabyte A million bytes of data, often written as Mbyte,

Microprocessor A very integrated CPU. Most modern CPUs are Microprocessors.

Module A file containing CPU instructions in the form of either assembly language

instructions or a high level language like C.

Object file A fille containing machine code and data that has not yet been linked

with other object files or libraries to become an executable image.

Page Physical memory is divided up into equal sized pages.

Pointer A location in memory that contains the address of another location in

memory,

Process This is an entity which can execute programs. A process could be thought

of as a program in action.

Processor Short for Microprocessor, equivalent toCPU.

PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect. A standard describing how the peripheral

components of a computer system may be connected together.

Peripheral An intelligent processor that does work on behalf of the system's CPU.

For example, an IDE controller chip,

Program A coherent set of CPU instructions that performs a task, such as printing

\hello world". See also executable image.

Protocol A protocol is a networking language used to transfer application data

between two cooperating processes or network layers.

Register A location within a chip, used to store information or instructions.

Routine Similar to a function except that, strictly speaking, routines do not return

values.

SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface.

Shell This is a program which acts as an interface between the operating system

and a human user. Also called a command shell, the most commonly used shell

in Linux is the bash shell.

SMP Symmetrical multiprocessing. Systems with more than one processor which

fairly share the work amongst those processors.

Socket A socket represents one end of a network connection, Linux supports the

BSD Socket interface.

Software CPU instructions (both assembler and high level languages like C) and

data. Mostly interchangable with Program.

System V A variant ofUnix

TM

produced in 1983, which included, amongst other

things, System V IPC mechanisms.

TCP Transmission Control Protocol.

Task Queue A mechanism for deferring work in the Linux kernel.

UDP User Datagram Protocol.

Virtual memory A hardware and software mechanism for making the physical

memory in a system appear larger than it actually is.




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